Conceptual frameworks in a public health context shall in the best of worlds serve two equally important purposes: guide empirical work to enhance our understanding of determinants and mechanisms and guide policy-making to illuminate entry points for interventions and policies. Effects of social determinants on population health and on health inequalities are characterized by working through long causal chains of mediating factors. Many of these factors tend to cluster among individuals living in underprivileged conditions and to interact with each other. Epidemiology and biostatistics are therefore facing several new challenges of how to estimate these mechanisms.
This global brief looks at existing health data and draws on some exciting new work to help us better understand the needs of older people and identify actions we can all take. There are sections covering key points, the demographics of ageing, the epidemiology of population ageing, taking action on ageing and health, and recommended reading.
An infectious disease epidemic requires an immediate and effective response. This manual provides keys to effective epidemic response