Practical Information and Guidance for Integration of MNCH and HIV Programs within a continuum of health and social services
With new prevention strategies on the horizon and HIV incidence stabilizing or declining in many parts of the world, the tides are beginning to turn on the HIV epidemic. Between 2002 and 2010, new HIV infections globally declined from 3.1 million to 2.7 million. However, 33.3 million people globally are still estimated to be living with HIV, including 2.5 million children. Approximately 40 percent of all women living with HIV are in sub-Saharan Africa. This technical brief discusses barriers to and outlines current and developing strategies to scale up traditionally vertical programs that work towards achieving the millennium development goals that focus on maternal, newborn and child health, HIV and AIDS, and malaria.
Despite decades of investment in HIV prevention, a large and vulnerable population—that of adolescent girls—remains invisible, underserved, and at disproportionate risk of HIV.
In every world region, men who have sex with men (MSM) face significantly higher rates of HIV than the general population. Young people are also at increased risk for HIV, comprising over 40% of new HIV infections worldwide. Young MSM (YMSM) face the heightened risks of both populations, as well as a number of vulnerabilities that are unique to YMSM. Despite the clear need for intervention, YMSM are often left out of research, policy, and programs designed for general MSM, general youth, and the general population. While data on HIV among YMSM are extreme - ly limited, existing studies show high HIV prevalence among YMSM around the world.
The HIV sentinel surveillance data has helped to map the epidemic and monitor HIV infection trends in the country and has served as an advocacy tool, resulting in the mobilization of partners, resources and development of innovative approaches by the national response to HIV and AIDS. The 2011 HIV survey was the 22nd round to be conducted in the country by the Department of Health. The South African antenatal clinic survey is done annually in October to obtain an estimate of the point prevalence for that year. The data set generated from this survey is used by mathematical modelers such WHO/UNAIDS reference group and others to estimate the rate of new HIV infections(incidence) and HIV-associated deaths are derived through mathematical models applied to HIV prevalence estimates.
The global war on drugs is driving the HIV/AIDS pandemic among people who use drugs and their sexual partners. Throughout the world, research has consistently shown that repressive drug law enforcement practices force drug users away from public health services and into hidden environments where HIV risk becomes markedly elevated. Mass incarceration of non-violent drug offenders also plays a major role in increasing HIV risk. This is a critical public health issue in many countries, including the United States, where as many as 25 percent of Americans infected with HIV may pass through correctional facilities annually, and where disproportionate incarceration rates are among the key reasons for markedly higher HIV rates among African Americans.
The Progress report 2011: Global HIV/AIDS response reviews progress made until the end of 2010 in scaling up access to health sector interventions for HIV prevention, treatment, care and support in low–and middle-income countries.
It is the fifth in a series of annual progress reports published since 2006 by WHO, UNICEF and UNAIDS, in collaboration with national and international partners, to monitor key components of the health sector response to the HIV epidemic.