NIMART rollout to primary healthcare facilities increases access to antiretrovirals in Johannesburg: An interrupted time series analysis
Introduction. South Africa has made remarkable progress in rolling out antiretroviral therapy (ART), with the largest number of people (more than 1.4 million) enrolled on antiretrovirals in the world. Decentralisation of services to primary health centres (PHCs) has strengthened retention of patients on ART and reduced the burden of managing uncomplicated cases at referral hospitals.
Development and application of benchmarks for budgeting of non-negotiable goods and services for provincial departments of health
As in other countries, South Africa’s healthcare system comprises a network of health facilities providing primary health care, supported by several higher levels of care. Information on individual facilities allows analysis and reflection on how the country’s health services inputs meet the population’s needs in terms of the type, quantity and quality of the services. This information is essential to identify health system strengths and gaps, to assess current and future needs and for planning investments and future services such as the National Health Insurance.
The ART guidelines deal with Fixed Dose Combinations medications and introduces fixed dose combination (FDC) ART for patients initiated with ART for the first time; introduce FDC ART for HIV positive pregnant women irrespective of CD4 count during pregnancy and during the breastfeeding period; phased introduction of FDC to patients with other co-morbidities (diabetes, hypertension and respiratory diseases, including TB); phased introduction of FDC to patients who require switching due to drugs toxicity or switching from Stavudine (d4T) based regime and phased introduction of FDC to patients who are stable of ART and VL suppressed.
This document is an update of the national PMTCT Policy and Guidelines 2010. It aims to provide continued guidance towards a reduction in the vertical transmission of HIV, building on work done since the inception of the programme and the 2010 Policy and Guidelines document. In line with the international standards for a comprehensive strategy, the PMTCT policy recognises that in order to prevent HIV among women and children, the four elements of PMTCT are integral.
* Primary prevention of HIV, especially among women of childbearing age;
South Africa has the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in the world, with 5.6 million people living with the virus and over 400,000 newly infected annually. Since 2004, the U.S. government has committed more than $4 billion to combating HIV/AIDS in South Africa—the largest U.S. investment in HIV/AIDS worldwide. Continued progress in controlling HIV/AIDS in South Africa, the epicenter of the pandemic, is pivotal to sustained progress against the disease worldwide.
Funding Scientific Innovation: Global Investments in HIV Treatment Research and Development in 2010 and 2011
Advances in HIV treatment research in 2010 and 2011 saw improvement in treatment regimens and strategies, and reinvigorated optimism for finding a cure. In 2012, TAG and AVAC, with financial support from UNAIDS, put forth a collaborative effort to analyze investment trends in HIV treatment research and development (R&D) in 2010 and 2011.
The latest report, Funding Scientific Innovation: Global Investments in HIV Treatment Research and Development in 2010 and 2011, found US$2.6 billion was invested in HIV treatment R&D in 2011. Data from 41 public, private, and philanthropic donors reveal a 12% increase in funding from the baseline year of 2009, with the majority of funding targeted at research for new medications.
A new set of guidelines and training tools dealing with the legal, ethical and counselling issues related to HIV testing of children is now available for HIV/AIDS practitioners working with children.
Dr Heidi van Rooyen, project team leader and research director at the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), explains: “These guidelines explore in simple and practical terms the psychosocial implications as well as the legal and policy obligations relating to HIV counselling and testing of children.
“The tools describe what practitioners can do to ensure that HIV testing of children takes place in a way that protects and promotes their rights and is conducted in their best interests."