The urgency of the problem of TB in children, whose full scope is still not fully known, cannot be underestimated. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates in 2012 revealed that up to 74 000 children die from TB each year and children account for around half a million new cases annually. It should be noted that the estimated deaths only include those in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative children. In fact, the actual burden of TB in children is likely higher, especially given the challenge in diagnosing childhood TB. Compounding this difficulty with diagnosis is the fact that children with TB often come from families that are poor, lack knowledge about the disease and live in communities with limited access to health services.
Routine monitoring and performance assessments enable health workers to identify and address health delivery challenges in Botswana: Experiences in six health facilities
Botswana is classified as a middle income country. However due to unequal distribution of wealth, about 28% of the population live on less than a dollar a day. With a life expectancy at birth of about 55 years for both sexes, the country carries a high disease burden. The Infant Mortality and the Under Five Mortality Rates remain high, with 40% of infant deaths occurring in the first week of their birth (National Health Policy 2011).Morbidity and mortality for all ages are dominated by infectious diseases with HIV and AIDS, TB, and other communicable diseases responsible for about half the deaths. Botswana’s adult HIV prevalence rate of 24.8% is the second highest in the world.
Financing the Response to HIV in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: International Assistance from Donor Governments in 2012
As the United Nations General Assembly prepares to meet in New York in September 2013, with progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on the agenda, it is important for the global HIV community to take stock of international efforts to finance the response to the epidemic. The world has marshaled significant resources to address HIV over the past decade, helping to achieve incredible results – since the MDGs were first launched in 2001, according to UNAIDS estimates, the number of people newly infected with HIV has dropped by 33% and access to antiretrovirals has increased more than 20-fold, reaching 9.7 million by the end of 2012.
When countries gathered in New York at the beginning of this century to articulate a new development agenda, one of the most momentous steps they took was to elevate health on the global development agenda. Acknowledging the historic impact of the AIDS epidemic, Millennium Development Goal 6 called for global efforts to halt and begin to reverse the epidemic, an objective that has helped inspire unprecedented action.
PEPFAR’s Best Practices for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Site Operations: A Service Guide for Site Operations
This guide provides implementing partners with a comprehensive and consistent process for establishing new VMMC services for HIV prevention. It draws upon numerous documents developed by UNAIDS/WHO and the PEPFAR VMMC Technical Working Group. This guide also builds on the experiences and materials from existing VMMC programs in southern and eastern Africa. The scope of this document is limited to establishing and supporting quality VMMC services for HIV prevention at the facility or VMMC site level. The necessary steps involved in scaling up VMMC services at the national, regional, and district levels are beyond the scope of this document.
“If HIV/AIDS and TB were a snake, I can assure you the head would be here in South Africa,” said Dr Aaron Motsoaledi, South Africa’s Minister of Health, referring to the high rates of HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) co-infection in the country. According to World Health Organization statistics, six in ten people living with HIV are also infected with TB. Someone living in South Africa is 20 times more likely to be infected with TB than elsewhere in the world. Therefore, integrating programs to address both TB and HIV is particularly important for South Africa to improve treatment and health outcomes. Funding from The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) has been instrumental in this process.
This landscape report is part of an ongoing initiative within UNITAID to describe and monitor the landscape for HIV commodities. It provides a broad overview of key HIV prevention tools, describing market dynamics around such prevention technologies and the primary factors that affect commodity access in HIV-endemic countries. Specifically, the report describes and analyses the market and technology landscapes for (i) male circumcision devices, (ii) barrier methods, (iii) microbicides, (iv) antiretroviral-based methods and (v) commodities needed for harm reduction. The report also explores market-based interventions that could alleviate current market shortcomings to improve access, focusing on key emerging products and product areas that are rapidly evolving.
South Africa has a huge burden of disease, fuelled by a range of risk factors, and morbidity (illness and disease) and mortality (death) figures are high.This is shown by the results of the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES), a comprehensive health and nutrition study that yielded critical information on emerging epidemics of non-communicable diseases. The study also analysed the underlying social, economic, behavioural and environmental factors that drives these diseases in the South African population.
A concept paper: Using the outcomes of common surgical conditions as quality metrics to benchmark district surgical services in South Africa as part of a systematic quality improvement programme
The fourth, fifth and sixth Millennium Development Goals relate directly to improving global healthcare and health outcomes. The focus is to improve global health outcomes by reducing maternal and childhood mortality and the burden of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Specific targets and timeframes have been set for these diseases. There is, however, no specific mention of surgically treated diseases in these goals, reflecting a bias that is slowly changing with emerging consensus that surgical care is an integral part of primary healthcare systems in the developing world. The disparities between the developed and developing world in terms of wealth and social indicators are reflected in disparities in access to surgical care.