South Africa has a huge burden of disease, fuelled by a range of risk factors, and morbidity (illness and disease) and mortality (death) figures are high.This is shown by the results of the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES), a comprehensive health and nutrition study that yielded critical information on emerging epidemics of non-communicable diseases. The study also analysed the underlying social, economic, behavioural and environmental factors that drives these diseases in the South African population.
A concept paper: Using the outcomes of common surgical conditions as quality metrics to benchmark district surgical services in South Africa as part of a systematic quality improvement programme
The fourth, fifth and sixth Millennium Development Goals relate directly to improving global healthcare and health outcomes. The focus is to improve global health outcomes by reducing maternal and childhood mortality and the burden of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Specific targets and timeframes have been set for these diseases. There is, however, no specific mention of surgically treated diseases in these goals, reflecting a bias that is slowly changing with emerging consensus that surgical care is an integral part of primary healthcare systems in the developing world. The disparities between the developed and developing world in terms of wealth and social indicators are reflected in disparities in access to surgical care.
Universal health coverage ensures everyone has access to the health services they need without suffering financial hardship as a result. In December 2012, a UN resolution was passed encouraging governments to move towards providing universal access to affordable and quality health care services. As countries move towards it, common challenges are emerging -- challenges to which research can help provide answers.
Practical Information and Guidance for Integration of MNCH and HIV Programs within a continuum of health and social services
With new prevention strategies on the horizon and HIV incidence stabilizing or declining in many parts of the world, the tides are beginning to turn on the HIV epidemic. Between 2002 and 2010, new HIV infections globally declined from 3.1 million to 2.7 million. However, 33.3 million people globally are still estimated to be living with HIV, including 2.5 million children. Approximately 40 percent of all women living with HIV are in sub-Saharan Africa. This technical brief discusses barriers to and outlines current and developing strategies to scale up traditionally vertical programs that work towards achieving the millennium development goals that focus on maternal, newborn and child health, HIV and AIDS, and malaria.
This report draws on a comprehensive review of the literature and on input from policy makers, research - ers, and practitioners to address four questions: (1) How is the growing burden of non-communica - ble diseases (NCDs) and road traffic injuries (RTIs) changing the epidemiology of Sub-Saharan Africa? (2) What determines and drives this burden, and what are the commonalities with communicable dis - eases? (3) What is the rationale for public interven - tion? (4) How could resource-constrained govern - ments approach NCD prevention and treatment and road safety in a comprehensive, effective and efficient way?
This report provides an overview of the HIV epidemics in eastern and southern Africa and of the region’s response and progress towards meeting the 2011 Political Declaration targets, while identifying noteworthy achievements and challenges.
The report draws on the most recently available data from the Global AIDS Response Reporting System, national HIV estimation exercises, data gathered and generated by UNAIDS, its co-sponsors and national partners, and the many recent studies and surveys that have been conducted in the region. The report is extensively referenced to enable interested readers to investigate source materials further.
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has launched a new framework to accelerate action in reaching 15 million people with antiretroviral treatment by 2015––the goal set by United Nations Member States in 2011.
The framework, entitled Treatment 2015, offers countries and partners both practical and innovative ways to increase the number of people accessing antiretroviral medicines. These medicines will not only enable people living with HIV to live longer and healthier lives, they will also help prevent new HIV infections.
Despite decades of investment in HIV prevention, a large and vulnerable population—that of adolescent girls—remains invisible, underserved, and at disproportionate risk of HIV.
2013 Progress report on the Global Plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive
The Global Plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive (Global Plan) was launched in July 2011 at the United Nations General Assembly High Level Meeting on AIDS. This report presents the interim progress made by 20 countries in sub-Saharan Africa and some of the challenges they face in meeting the agreed targets for 2015. Of the 22 Global Plan priority countries, data from India were not available at the time this report was written. Only provisional data were available from Uganda at the time of publication. The preliminary results for Uganda are included in the aggregated values, but no country-specific data are presented here.
Essential Nutrition Actions: improving maternal, newborn, infant and young child health and nutrition
Malnutrition in all its forms is closely linked, either directly or indirectly, to major causes of death and disability worldwide. The causes of malnutrition are directly related to inadequate dietary intake as well as disease, but indirectly to many factors, among others household food security, maternal and child care, health services and the environment. While most nutrition interventions are delivered through the health sector, non-health interventions can also be critical. Actions should target the different causes to reach sustainable change, which requires a multisectoral approach.