The field of global health is witnessing a shift in focus from disease-driven initiatives to projects aimed at increasing the sustainability and strengthening of health systems. A crucial component to this is universal health coverage (UHC), which seeks to address financing schemes for health, separate from efforts to provide both adequate numbers of health workers and structures for health-care delivery. UHC may be provided by government or through a combination of private insurance schemes, public-sector planning, and employer-based programs. Countries across the world, from China and India to Rwanda and Mexico, are beginning to implement different universal health coverage schemes, marking a rise in interest and political will for universal health coverage.
Every day, approximately 1000 women die in childbirth or from a pregnancy-related complication.1 Maternal death can occur at any time in pregnancy, but delivery is by far the most dangerous time for both the mother and the baby. The vast majority of these deaths can be prevented if access to emergency obstetric care is ensured.
Experience shows us that at least 15 percent of all pregnant women worldwide encounter a life-threatening complication. In a conflict or a crisis, pregnant women are even more vulnerable because health services have collapsed, are inadequate or non-existent. But these women need access to quality emergency obstetric care whether they live in a conflict zone, in a refugee camp or under plastic sheeting after a devastating earthquake.
The SAHR 2011 provides valuable policy and empirical information on a range of issues that are related to and impact on the Negotiated Service Delivery Agreement and primary health care re-engineering as envisaged by the National Department of Health (NDoH). A range of experts provide commentary on topics ranging from rural health, health technology to human resources. SAHR 2011 also contains a section on core health issues, where developments in health information systems, financing health care, and health legislation and policy are discussed. The Review concludes with the Indicators chapter which presents a selection of the best available data on the functioning and performance of the health system.
Progress in health and development in the poorest countries is in serious danger if the world does not make a concerted effort to reduce inequities, protect the environment and promote sustainability. This is the stark warning highlighted in the 2011 Human Development Report, launched on Wednesday by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
A period of major change is unfolding in health and HIV services in South Africa, carrying opportunities and risks for delivering effective, integrated health services that improve health outcomes and save lives. South Africa is decentralizing HIV services to the primary health care level, paving the way for greater integration to address women’s health and to reduce maternal mortality. The United States can find feasible, flexible ways to support this process, even though its health program through the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is scaling down.
This report is based on research conducted between August 2010 and April 2011. During this period, Human Rights Watch researchers interviewed 157 women who received maternal health services, or accompanied other women seeking such services, in Eastern Cape public health facilities over the past five years, and observed health facilities in Eastern Cape Province. In addition to interviewing other experts, Human Rights Watch also reviewed laws, policies, official health strategies, and reports by academics, national and international organizations, and United Nations agencies.
The case studies that follow, from across sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Europe and Central
Asia, Latin America and North America, highlight the rich diversity of community initiatives that
bridge sexual and reproductive health and rights and HIV. The report has a strategic emphasis
on the innovation that is being led by women living with HIV and features pioneering endeavours
that reflect community and key stakeholder interpretation and understanding of how this
intersection is defined. It profiles initiatives that have emerged from within the HIV sector as it
broadens out to encompass a sexual and reproductive health and rights approach, as well as
World Health Organisation. The World Health Report 2007: a safer future: global public health security in the 21st century. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2007.
World Health Organisation. The World Health Report 2005: Make every mother and child count. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2005.
This report is part of a bigger international effort through which NGOs from sixteen countries have collected strategic data on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights based on the goals in the 2001 UNGASS Declaration. The process was initiated by GESTOS Soropositividade, Comunicao e Gnero, an NGO in Brazil, and was funded by the Ford Foundation. The purpose of the study was to identify gaps and progresses in the implementation of activities addressing sexual and reproductive health and rights of women and girls in the fight against HIV and AIDS.