CONSORTIUM FOR HEALTH POLICY AND SYSTEMS ANALYSIS IN AFRICA: Comparative Results of Capacity Needs Assessments in African partner institutions
The Consortium for Health Policy and Systems Analysis in Africa (CHEPSAA) project is aimed at building the field of health policy and systems research and analysis (HPSA) in Africa. Specifically, CHEPSAA aims to increase sustainable African capacity to produce and use high quality health policy and systems analysis HPSA. These objectives will be met through the activities of 5 Work Packages (WP), the first of which is an HPSA capacity needs assessment. The needs assessment assumes that to build the field, we first need to strengthen the CHEPSAA partner institutions. It was undertaken in 2 phases:
· County context mapping by country partners was undertaken from April-May 2011
Over the past several decades, the world has witnessed some astonishing global health success stories—from the eradication of smallpox to the expanding control of other vaccine-preventable diseases to the widespread provision of effective treatment for HIV/AIDS to millions of people. Yet, for all these public health and medical advances, a startling number of women still die each year from causes linked to pregnancy and childbirth: 287,000, according to the most recent consensus estimates. Eighty-five percent of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Many if not most are thought to be avoidable given adequate maternal access to emergency obstetric care.
The School of Public Health at the University of the Western Cape is a WHO Collaborating Centre, and has an international reputation as a leading research and teaching institution in Public Health. Its educational and research activities are wide-ranging, with a special focus on health systems research, primary health care, social determinants of health, priority conditions (including TB/HIV and chronic disease) and the implementation of district health systems. The School’s distance learning postgraduate programme, offered through a range of learning media, is unique in Southern Africa.
This Roadmap presents a set of practical African-sourced solutions for enhancing shared responsibility and global solidarity for AIDS, TB and malaria responses in Africa on a sustainable basis by 2015. The solutions are organized around three strategic pillars: diversified financing; access to medicines; and enhanced health governance.
The Roadmap defines goals, results and roles and responsibilities to hold stakeholders accountable for the realization of these solutions between 2012 and 2015.
Windows of Opportunity Project: Review and Analysis of Maternal and Child Health Development Data for Four Project Districts in South Africa
Up to half a million African babies die on the day they are born, and every year 1.16 million babies die in the first month of life while another one million babies are stillborn. In addition, about 250 000 women die of pregnancy-related causes every year in Africa. The majority of these deaths are preventable. However due to factors such as critical shortage of health professionals and essential materials and infrastructure, ineffective intervention programmes as well as the impact of the HIV and AIDS epidemic, the Africa continent continues to lose millions of babies and mothers every year. Hence, there is a need to strengthen the health systems in many African countries through effective maternal and child health (MCH) intervention programmes.
The global war on drugs is driving the HIV/AIDS pandemic among people who use drugs and their sexual partners. Throughout the world, research has consistently shown that repressive drug law enforcement practices force drug users away from public health services and into hidden environments where HIV risk becomes markedly elevated. Mass incarceration of non-violent drug offenders also plays a major role in increasing HIV risk. This is a critical public health issue in many countries, including the United States, where as many as 25 percent of Americans infected with HIV may pass through correctional facilities annually, and where disproportionate incarceration rates are among the key reasons for markedly higher HIV rates among African Americans.
Report of the session on “Bringing evidence on equity to health policy in Africa: Experiences of the Equity Watch”
Convened by EQUINET, in association with the ECSA Health Community and IDRC Canada, this session presented evidence and experience from work carried out in 2010-2012 in five countries and at regional level in East and Southern Africa to assess progress in key areas of equity in health outcomes, in social determinants of health and in redistributive health systems. The
session reviewed the learning from the work, particularly in relation to monitoring policy commitments to equity in health, and discuss the opportunities and the challenges for institutionalising and using equity analysis within health policy and planning. This report summarises the presentations and issues raised at the session.
Globally, the total number of maternal deaths decreased by from 543 000 in 1990 to 287 000 in 2010. Likewise, the global maternal mortality ratio (MMR) declined from 400 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births in 1990 to 210 in 2010, representing an average annual decline of 3.1 per cent.
Three countries in Southern Africa have the highest adult HIV prevalence in the world: Swaziland (25.9%), Botswana (24.8%), and Lesotho (23.6%). Fiscal policy is crucial for addressing this HIV/AIDS crisis. Utilizing a calibrated model, this paper investigates the impact of fiscal policy on reducing the HIV/AIDS incidence rates in these countries. In particular, we studied the welfare impact of different taxation and debt paths in these countries in reducing the HIV/AIDS prevalence rates. This is particularly important given the current concerns about dwindling foreign aid (especially the global AIDS fund), and the fiscal deterioration and sustainability in these countries.